human urine treatment

About 91-96% of urine consists of water.[3] Urine also contains an assortment of inorganic salts and organic compounds, including proteins, hormones, and a wide range of metabolites, varying by what is introduced into the body.

The total solids in urine are on average 59 g per person per day. Organic matter makes up between 65% and 85% of urine dry solids, with volatile solids comprising 75–85% of total solids. Urea is the largest constituent of the solids, constituting more than 50% of the total. On an elemental level, human urine contains 6.87 g/L carbon, 8.12 g/L nitrogen, 8.25 g/L oxygen, and 1.51 g/L hydrogen. The exact proportions vary with individuals and with factors such as diet and health.[3]

The pH normally is within the range of 5.5 to 7 with an average of 6.2

Undiluted urine can chemically burn the roots of some plants which is why it is usually applied diluted with water, which also reduces odour development during application. When diluted with water (at a 1:5 ratio for container-grown annual crops with fresh growing medium each season,[19] or a 1:8 ratio for more general use[20]), it can be applied directly to soil as a fertilizer. The fertilization effect of urine has been found to be comparable to that of commercial fertilizers with an equivalent NPK rating.[21] Concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, commonly found in solid human waste, are much lower in urine.[22] The more general limitations to using urine as fertilizer then depend mainly on the potential for buildup of excess nitrogen (due to the high ratio of nitrogen),[19] and inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, which are also part of the wastes excreted by the renal system. The degree to which these factors impact the effectiveness depends on the term of use, salinity tolerance of the plant, soil composition, addition of other fertilizing compounds, and quantity of rainfall or other irrigation.

 

banana peels for your plant

Banana peels contain nutrients that are essential for healthy potted plants. However, they don’t contain everything your plant needs. As they decompose, banana peels add potassium as well as small amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium to the soil in a similar fashion as a slow-release fertilizer. Use the peels in conjunction with complete houseplant fertilizers to make sure your plants are getting all the nutrients they need.

can we use tea ground as nutrients to plant

It is important to note that not all plants respond well when tea grounds and used tea bags are added to the soil, directly or in compost form. The natural tannic acid inside tea leaves leaches into the soil with rainwater as tea grounds decompose, thereby lowering the soil’s pH and increasing acidity. This poses a problem for plants that require neutral to alkaline soils but creates the ideal conditions for acid-loving plants to thrive. Use fresh and used tea grounds only on acid-loving plants, such as –

  • rosebushes
  • ferns
  • Taxus baccata

aspirin and cancer prevention

Aspirin reduces the overall risk of both getting cancer and dying from cancer.[57] This effect is particularly beneficial for colorectal cancer (CRC).[23][58][59][60] It may also slightly reduce the risk of endometrial cancer,[61] breast cancer, and prostate cancer.[62]

Some conclude the benefits are greater than the risks due to bleeding in those at average risk.[57] Other are unclear if the benefits are greater than the risk.[63][64] Given this uncertainty, the 2007 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines on this topic recommended against the use of aspirin for prevention of CRC in people with average risk.[65]

Medicinal plants

The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized societies.[56]

Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies, including opium, aspirin, digitalis, and quinine. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care.[57] Pharmaceuticals are prohibitively expensive for most of the world’s population, half of which lives on less than $2 U.S. per day.[56] In comparison, herbal medicines can be grown from seed or gathered from nature for little or no cost.

The use of, and search for, drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Pharmacologists, microbiologists, botanists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and leads that could be developed for treatment of various diseases. In fact, according to the World Health Organisation, approximately 25% of modern drugs used in the United States have been derived from plants.[58]

Among the 120 active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and widely used in modern medicine today, 80 percent show a positive correlation between their modern therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived.[4] More than two thirds of the world’s plant species – at least 35,000 of which are estimated to have medicinal value – come from the developing countries.[verification needed] At least 7,000 medical compounds in the modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plants.[59] In many medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), significant variations of plants characteristics have been ascertained with varying soil traits, and the selective recovery and subsequent release in food of certain elements have been demonstrated. Great attention must be paid to choose soil and cropping strategies, to obtain satisfactory yields of high quality and best-priced products, respecting their safety and nutritional value.[60]

多肉植物 succulent plants

宝石花,一类多肉植物的统称。正名:石花,别名:石莲花、石胆草、粉莲、胧月、初霜,民间泛指莲花座造型的多肉植物。例如冬美人、玉蝶、胧月、黑王子、桃美人等等。

Not to be confused with cactus; nearly all cacti are succulents but not all succulents are cacti.
Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves

In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents or sometimes fat plants, are plants having some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions. The word “succulent” comes from the Latin word sucus, meaning juice, or sap.[1] Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as leaves and stems. Some definitions also include roots, so that geophytes that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground storage organs may be regarded as succulents. In horticultural use, the term “succulent” is often used in a way which excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, such as cacti. Succulents are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unusual appearance.

About 60 different plant families contain succulents.[citation needed] In some families, such as Cactaceae, Agavoideae, Aizoaceae, and Crassulaceae, most plants are succulents. The habitats of these water preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures and low rainfall. Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an ecosystem which contains scarce water sources.

one example is Graptopetalum paraguayense.

2-5-rosette-only-succulent-wedding-favor-gift-2 011394f33e641e8e89dad372ee8264dc 6331909886_720a7d9993_b beautiful-succulent-plants-closeup-photo-wallpapers-1280x800-15 close-succulent how-to-propagate-succulents-from-leaves-and-cuttings-needlesandleaves_net il_fullxfull_371689609_se82 starr-011104-0341 succulent-large-032_2 succulent-plants succulents

 

 

tips about growing lingzhi

  • 灵芝是好氧型的药用菌,如果氧气不够时就只长柄,氧气充足就长盖;
  • 木屑、甘蔗渣、玉米芯等等都可以用作为培养基;
  • 菌丝培养
    • 培养温度范围为22~25℃
    • 随着时间延长菌丝逐渐趋于自溶,发酵液的颜色变得较深;36~38℃菌丝停止生长,40℃即死亡
    • 灵芝菌丝体同样需要吸收氧气;
    • 灵芝菌丝最适生长的PH5.0~6.0,发酵初期PH4.0~5.4左右,到了发酵中期菌丝体生长旺盛,菌体干物质和有效成分的积累,PH值几急剧下降倒2.5~3.5之间
  • 灵芝菌丝长满袋后,把灵芝搬到出芝房,控制空气的氧量,光线不宜过强,阴凉,保湿;

Mycelium

Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. The mass of hyphae is sometimes called shiro, especially within the fairy ring fungi. Fungal colonies composed of mycelium are found in and on soil and many other substrates. A typical single spore germinates into a homokaryotic mycelium, which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible homokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium; that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms.

Through the mycelium, a fungus absorbs nutrients from its environment. It does this in a two-stage process. First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers. These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport.

Mycelium is vital in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for their role in the decomposition of plant material. They contribute to the organic fraction of soil, and their growth releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere (see carbon cycle). Ectomycorrhizal extramatrical mycelium, as well as the mycelium of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption of most plants and confers resistance to some plant pathogens. Mycelium is an important food source for many soil invertebrates.

Oyster_mushroom_(Pleurotus_ostreatus)_mycelium_in_petri_dish_on_coffee_grounds