The World’s Top 10 Seed Companies

The World’s Top 10 Seed Companies

Company – 2007 Seed sales (US$ millions) % of global proprietary seed market
Monsanto (US) $4,964m 23%
DuPont (US) $3,300m 15%
Syngenta (Switzerland) $2,018m 9%
Groupe Limagrain (France) $1,226m 6%
Land O’ Lakes (US) $917m 4%
KWS AG (Germany) $702m 3%
Bayer Crop Science (Germany) $524m 2%
Sakata (Japan) $396m <2%
DLF-Trifolium (Denmark) $391m <2%
Takii (Japan) $347m <2%

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbonsorganic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized). Formally, the class is further defined as lacking further branching substituents off of these ring structures. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are a subset of PAHs that have fused aromatic rings, that is, rings that share one or more sides. Though poly- in these cases literally means “many”, there is precedence in nomenclature for beginning this class and subclass with the two ring cases, where naphthalene would therefore be considered a simple example; beginning at three rings, examples include anthracene and phenanthrene.

PAHs are neutral, nonpolar molecules; they are found in fossil fuels (oil and coal) and in tar deposits, and are produced, generally, when insufficient oxygen or other factors result in incomplete combustion of organic matter (e.g., in engines and incinerators, when biomass burns in forest fires, etc.). PAHs can also be found at high levels in cooked foods, e.g., in meat cooked at high temperatures over open flame. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-researched example of a coal tar PAH (see image) whose metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic; as a class, benzopyrenes, a ring fusion between monocyclic benzene and tetracyclic pyrene rings, result from incomplete combustion at temperatures between 300 °C (572 °F) and 600 °C (1,112 °F).

pah

Because many PAHs are neither soluble in water nor volatile, PAHs in the environment are found primarily in soil, sediment, oily substances, and particulate matter suspended in air.

Natural crude oil and coal deposits contain significant amounts of PAHs, arising from chemical conversion of natural product molecules, such as steroids, to aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also found in processed fossil fuels, tar, and various edible oils.[11] In a study evaluating the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium, it was concluded that dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

PAHs are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. In addition to their presence in fossil fuels they are also formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as wood, coal, diesel, fat, tobacco, and incense.[13] Different types of combustion yield different distributions of PAHs in both relative amounts of individual PAHs and in which isomers are produced. Thus, coal burning produces a different mixture than motor-fuel combustion or a forest fire, making the compounds potentially useful as indicators of the burning history. Hydrocarbon emissions from fossil fuel-burning engines are regulated in developed countries.[14] Certain species of bacteria are capable of degrading polycyclic hydrocarbons, such as Kordiimonas gwangyangensis.[15] 

 

breast cancer portal

let’s take a grand look first  –

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.[1] Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin.[2] In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin.[3]

Risk factors for developing breast cancer include: female sex, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, and family history.[2][4] About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person’s parents, including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others. Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas.[2] In addition, there are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer. Some cancers develop from pre-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ.[4] The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump. Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments it may respond to.[2]

The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A 2013 Cochrane review stated that it is unclear if mammographic screening does more good or harm.[5] A 2009 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force found evidence of benefit in those 40 to 70 years of age,[6] and the organization recommends screening every two years in women 50 to 74 years old.[7] The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it.[4] Surgical removal of both breasts is another useful preventative measure in some high risk women.[4] In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy.[2] Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy.[8][9] Breast reconstruction may take place at the time of surgery or at a later date. In those in whom the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are mostly aimed at improving quality of life and comfort.[9]

Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, extent of disease, and person’s age.[9] Survival rates in the developed world are high,[10] with between 80% and 90% of those in England and the United States alive for at least 5 years.[11][12] In developing countries survival rates are poorer.[4] Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women, accounting for 25% of all cases.[13] In 2012 it resulted in 1.68 million cases and 522,000 deaths.[13] It is more common in developed countries[4] and is more than 100 times more common in women than in men.[10][14]